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Page history last edited by PBworks 16 years, 5 months ago

While the word "targum" means translation in general, it usually refers to the Aramaic translations of the Hebrew Bible.  After the Babylonian exile, most Jews spoke Aramaic as their first language, so translation became necessary to understand the Biblical readings.  Many of the Targum contained interpretations or explanatory notes in addition to the literal translation.


This body of work includes: 

  • Targum Onkelos, also known as the Babylonian Targum
  • Targum Yerushalmi, also known as Targum Pseudo-Jonathan (Torah only)
  • Targum Jonathan (Torah, prophets and some parts of the hagiographa)
  • Targum Neophyti
  • Targum Sheni (on the scroll of Esther)
  • Targum to Job



Finding texts online

The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon at HUC-JIR Cincinnati

Complete online texts of all Jewish Aramaic resources, talmudic, midrashic, and targumic, along with a complete set of research tools for Targumic studies


On this page, you can search by Biblical verse and see all the Targum versions of that verse.



Responsa Project - Torah literature and Jewish texts | פרויקט השו"ת - ספרות תורנית

This database includes Torah, Talmud, codes, and commentaries in addition to works of responsa. Texts are available in Hebrew only. Basic searching is available to anyone, but advanced features are only available to subscribers.  The HUC community can access the full features through the Jewish Studies Portal


Translation of Onkelos and Pseudo-Jonathan


by J.W. Etheridge

At the Newsletter for Targumic and Cognate Studies.



Translation of Targum Psalms


An English Translation by Edward M. Cook

At the Newsletter for Targumic and Cognate Studies.


Translation of the Targum to Shir HaShirim

by Jay C. Treat



Translation of the Targum to Ruth

by Samson H. Levey


At the Newsletter for Targumic and Cognate Studies.


Translation of the Targum to Lamentations

Translated by C. M. M. Brady


At the Newsletter for Targumic and Cognate Studies.



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